September 27, 2018

General Earth Sciences | 地球科學

General Earth Sciences – 地球科學

Earth Sciences (geology)

It is the study of the Earth planet, its composition, origin and evolution. 

Earth science includes the study of the solid earth (crust, mantle and core) and its interaction with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, including the oceans, the universe and the biosphere and usually uses tools from physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how Earth systems work.

Rock-forming Minerals

Properties of minerals: Minerals by Physical and Optical Properties
Classes of minerals: Minerals Arranged by the Dana Classification
Minerals: organized by Chemical Composition and by Crystallography and Crystal Form
Handbook of Mineralogy by Mineralogical Society of America:

Gemology links: ​

GEMDTA: online  gemmological information
GIA: the Gemological Institute of America is the world’s foremost authority on diamonds, colored stones, and pearls.
The Gemology Project: a gemstone and gem science database for anyone interested in gemstones and gemology.
International Colored Stone Association

Mineralogy links:

WEBMINERAL: individual mineral species descriptions with links and a comprehensive image library.
MINDAT: information about minerals, their properties and where they are found.
Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data – Interactive maps and downloadable data for regional and global Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Resources from the USGS.

Geological Cycle

The geological cycle refers to the diverse set of natural processes that lead to the formation and transformation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks: Rock Cycle Processes.

Tectonic Plates – 板塊運動

The theory of plate tectonics states that earth ‘s lithosphere is composed of a mosaic of rigid plates that are in relative motion. It was the geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) who first proposed the Theory of continental drift.

Earthquakes (地震), Volcanic Activities (火山) and Tsunamis (海啸)

Hydrothermal vents

What are deep-sea hydrothermal vents? – O que são fontes hidrotermais oceânicas

Petrology - Type of Rocks

Magmatic or Igneous Rocks – are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are 2 types. Intrusive igneous rocks crystallize below Earth’s surface, and the slow cooling that occurs there allows large crystals to form and Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass. More Info here

Sedimentary Rocks – are formed by the accumulation of sediments. There are 3 types of sedimentary rocks: Clastic or sedimentary rocksChemical rocks, and Organic (Biogenic) rocksMore info here

Metamorphic Rocks – are rocks that have been modified by heat, pressure, and chemical processes, usually while buried deep below Earth’s surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture, and chemical composition of the rocks. There are 2 types of metamorphic rocks. Foliated rocks (consequence of regional metamorphism – generationg layered or banded textures – produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure), and Non-foliated rocks (consequence of contact metamorphism – generation non-layered textures – usualy formed by the contact of igneous intrusions where the temperatures are high but the pressures are relatively low and equal in all directions – confining pressure). More info here

Petrology Databases

GEOROC – Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents – data systems and services for geochemicalgeochronological, and petrological data (developed and maintained by EarthChem, including the EarthChem Library, the EarthChem Portal, PetDB, NAVDAT, SedDB, and Geochron). The database is a comprehensive collection of published analyses of volcanic rocks and mantle xenoliths. It contains major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and nonradiogenic isotope ratios as well as analytical ages for whole rocksglassesminerals and inclusions.

GERM – Geochemical Earth Reference Model – database containing a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs and the fluxes between them.

IGBA – Igneous data Base – Global Database in Igneous Petrology.

IGPET – is a suite of applications by Michael Carr for PC and Mac to manipulate and plot geochemical data. 

PetDB database – is a global synthesis of chemicalisotopic, and mineralogical data for rocks, minerals, and melt inclusions. 

PETROS – Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks – data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes

Geological time scale

Chronostratigraphic Chart – Tabela cronoestratigráfica: Click here (PDF or JPG) to download the latest version (v2016/04) of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart. you can find other versions or diferent stratigraphic charts in the International Commission on Stratigraphy site

Cosmic calendar – Calendar cósmico: is a table where the chronology of the universe is easely observed. The 13.7 billion year lifetime of the universe is mapped onto a single year. At this scale the Big Bang takes place on January 1 at midnight, the current time is December 31 at midnight here

Geology of Macao – 澳門的地質

Igneous rocks from Macao
Tectonic evolution of Macao
Geological history of Macao

Geology of Hong Kong – 香港地質


GMRT – Global Multi-Resolution Topography Data Synthesis is a multi-resolutional compilation of edited multibeam sonar data

Interactive Map of Earthinformation about Weather, Ocean Currents, Temperature, Ocean Waves, Aerosols and Pollutants concentration, etc.

Natural Hazards

Air Pollution

September 27, 2018

Air Pollution


Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter (PM)carbon monoxide (CO)ozone (O3)nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal (WHO).

Here you can get more information about Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health and Household (Indoor) Air Pollution Watch the video: State of the Earth Air (by National Geographic)

Ambient pollutants – Poluentes atmosféricos

 Outdoor air pollutants concentration in Macao / Concentração dos poluentes atmosféricos em Macau (REAL TIME)via SMG.


Air pollution information: Pollutants Guideline / Informação sobre a poluição atmosférica: directrizes sobre os poluentes


Macao Air Quality / Qualidade do Ar em Macau (SMG)
Pollutant concentrations in the air in the last 24 hours / Concentração dos poluentes atmosféricos nas últimas 24 horas

Real-time Pearl River Delta Air Quality Information / Informação da Qualidade do Ar no Deltas do Rio da Pérola em tempo real
Real-time world Air Quality Index (AQI)  / Índice de Qualidade do Ar (IQA) no mundo e em tempo real
EPA: US Environmental Protection Agency / Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos EUA
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
EU – Air Quality   Standards
The European Union policy on air quality / Política da Qualidade do Ar da Comissão Europeia
China – Air Quality Standards
Ambient Air Quality Standards in China / Standards da Qualidade do ar na China
China’s current air quality standards include two classes of limit values. Class 1 standards apply to special regions such as national parks. Class 2 standards apply to all other areas, including urban and industrial areas. Earlier versions of the standard included a third class – special industrial areas – but this class was eliminated in the 2012 standard.
Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects, 2016
Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, 1984
Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China



September 27, 2018

Extreme Natural Events



Tsunamis are distinct from ordinary wind-driven ocean waves and are giant waves caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions under the sea or even by landslides in the coastal zones or by meteorites that fall dow in the oceans. Out in the depths of the ocean, tsunami waves do not dramatically increase in height. However as the waves travel inland, they build up to higher and higher heights as the depth of the ocean decreases. The speed of tsunami waves depends on ocean depth rather than the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves may travel as fast as jet planes over deep waters, only slowing down when reaching shallow waters. While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because tides have little to do with these giant waves (adapted from NOAA).

How does tsunami energy travel across the ocean and how far can tsunamis waves reach? by ITIC

Tsunamis by National Geographic

Tsunamis by NOAA

Estimated Tsunami Travel Times to Coastal Locations by NOAA

Tsunami Travel Time Maps: Tsunami Sources by NOAA