InterRidge Theoretical Institute on “Magmatic and Tectonic Processes and Seabed Resources at Mid-Ocean Ridges”

November 1, 2018

Start: 09/25/2015 00:00

End: 09/27/2015 23:59

Timezone: Asia/Shanghai

Third InterRidge Theoretical Institute on “Magmatic and Tectonic Processes and Seabed Resources at Mid-Ocean Ridges”

Location: Hangzhou, China

Date: September 25-27, 2015

The theoretical institute focuses on the first two themes of the InterRidge Third Decadal Plan with the chairs and co-chairs for each of the two themes who will lead the scientific programs of the theoretical institute which is organized by the InterRidge Office.

Theme One: Magmatic and Tectonic Processes

Dr. Jian Lin (WHOI, USA), Chair

Dr. Marcia Maia (CNRS, France), Co-chair

Dr. Nobukazu Seama (Kobe University, Japan), Co-Chair

Theme Two: Seabed Resources

Dr. Bramley J. Murton (Southampton, UK), Chair

Dr. Marius Tivey (Whoi, US), Co-Chair

Dr. Sergei Silantyev (Russia), Co-Chair

September 27, 2018

General Earth Sciences | 地球科學

General Earth Sciences – 地球科學

Earth Sciences (geology)

It is the study of the Earth planet, its composition, origin and evolution. 

Earth science includes the study of the solid earth (crust, mantle and core) and its interaction with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, including the oceans, the universe and the biosphere and usually uses tools from physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how Earth systems work.

Rock-forming Minerals

Properties of minerals: Minerals by Physical and Optical Properties
Classes of minerals: Minerals Arranged by the Dana Classification
Minerals: organized by Chemical Composition and by Crystallography and Crystal Form
Handbook of Mineralogy by Mineralogical Society of America:

Gemology links: ​

GEMDTA: online  gemmological information
GIA: the Gemological Institute of America is the world’s foremost authority on diamonds, colored stones, and pearls.
The Gemology Project: a gemstone and gem science database for anyone interested in gemstones and gemology.
International Colored Stone Association

Mineralogy links:

WEBMINERAL: individual mineral species descriptions with links and a comprehensive image library.
MINDAT: information about minerals, their properties and where they are found.
Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data – Interactive maps and downloadable data for regional and global Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Resources from the USGS.

Geological Cycle

The geological cycle refers to the diverse set of natural processes that lead to the formation and transformation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks: Rock Cycle Processes.

Tectonic Plates – 板塊運動

The theory of plate tectonics states that earth ‘s lithosphere is composed of a mosaic of rigid plates that are in relative motion. It was the geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) who first proposed the Theory of continental drift.

Earthquakes (地震), Volcanic Activities (火山) and Tsunamis (海啸)

Hydrothermal vents

What are deep-sea hydrothermal vents? – O que são fontes hidrotermais oceânicas

Petrology - Type of Rocks

Magmatic or Igneous Rocks – are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are 2 types. Intrusive igneous rocks crystallize below Earth’s surface, and the slow cooling that occurs there allows large crystals to form and Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals. Some cool so quickly that they form an amorphous glass. More Info here

Sedimentary Rocks – are formed by the accumulation of sediments. There are 3 types of sedimentary rocks: Clastic or sedimentary rocksChemical rocks, and Organic (Biogenic) rocksMore info here

Metamorphic Rocks – are rocks that have been modified by heat, pressure, and chemical processes, usually while buried deep below Earth’s surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture, and chemical composition of the rocks. There are 2 types of metamorphic rocks. Foliated rocks (consequence of regional metamorphism – generationg layered or banded textures – produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure), and Non-foliated rocks (consequence of contact metamorphism – generation non-layered textures – usualy formed by the contact of igneous intrusions where the temperatures are high but the pressures are relatively low and equal in all directions – confining pressure). More info here

Petrology Databases

GEOROC – Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents – data systems and services for geochemicalgeochronological, and petrological data (developed and maintained by EarthChem, including the EarthChem Library, the EarthChem Portal, PetDB, NAVDAT, SedDB, and Geochron). The database is a comprehensive collection of published analyses of volcanic rocks and mantle xenoliths. It contains major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and nonradiogenic isotope ratios as well as analytical ages for whole rocksglassesminerals and inclusions.

GERM – Geochemical Earth Reference Model – database containing a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs and the fluxes between them.

IGBA – Igneous data Base – Global Database in Igneous Petrology.

IGPET – is a suite of applications by Michael Carr for PC and Mac to manipulate and plot geochemical data. 

PetDB database – is a global synthesis of chemicalisotopic, and mineralogical data for rocks, minerals, and melt inclusions. 

PETROS – Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks – data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes

Geological time scale

Chronostratigraphic Chart – Tabela cronoestratigráfica: Click here (PDF or JPG) to download the latest version (v2016/04) of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart. you can find other versions or diferent stratigraphic charts in the International Commission on Stratigraphy site

Cosmic calendar – Calendar cósmico: is a table where the chronology of the universe is easely observed. The 13.7 billion year lifetime of the universe is mapped onto a single year. At this scale the Big Bang takes place on January 1 at midnight, the current time is December 31 at midnight here

Geology of Macao – 澳門的地質

Igneous rocks from Macao
Tectonic evolution of Macao
Geological history of Macao

Geology of Hong Kong – 香港地質

Maps

GMRT – Global Multi-Resolution Topography Data Synthesis is a multi-resolutional compilation of edited multibeam sonar data

Interactive Map of Earthinformation about Weather, Ocean Currents, Temperature, Ocean Waves, Aerosols and Pollutants concentration, etc.

Natural Hazards

Air Pollution

September 27, 2018

Air Pollution

AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter (PM)carbon monoxide (CO)ozone (O3)nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal (WHO).

Here you can get more information about Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health and Household (Indoor) Air Pollution Watch the video: State of the Earth Air (by National Geographic)

Ambient pollutants – Poluentes atmosféricos

 Outdoor air pollutants concentration in Macao / Concentração dos poluentes atmosféricos em Macau (REAL TIME)via SMG.

AIR POLLUTION INFORMATION AROUND THE WORLD

WHO / OMS
Air pollution information: Pollutants Guideline / Informação sobre a poluição atmosférica: directrizes sobre os poluentes

English: http://www.who.int/topics/air_pollution/en
Chinese: http://www.who.int/topics/air_pollution/zh
_______________

Macao Air Quality / Qualidade do Ar em Macau (SMG)
Pollutant concentrations in the air in the last 24 hours / Concentração dos poluentes atmosféricos nas últimas 24 horas

English: http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/e_index.htm
Chinese: http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/c_index.htm
Portuguese: http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/p_index.htm
_______________
PRD, AQI
Real-time Pearl River Delta Air Quality Information / Informação da Qualidade do Ar no Deltas do Rio da Pérola em tempo real
http://113.108.142.147:20047
_______________
WAQI
Real-time world Air Quality Index (AQI)  / Índice de Qualidade do Ar (IQA) no mundo e em tempo real
www.waqi.inf
_______________
EPA. USNAAQS
EPA: US Environmental Protection Agency / Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos EUA
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
_______________
EU – Air Quality   Standards
The European Union policy on air quality / Política da Qualidade do Ar da Comissão Europeia
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/index.htm
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China – Air Quality Standards
Ambient Air Quality Standards in China / Standards da Qualidade do ar na China
China’s current air quality standards include two classes of limit values. Class 1 standards apply to special regions such as national parks. Class 2 standards apply to all other areas, including urban and industrial areas. Earlier versions of the standard included a third class – special industrial areas – but this class was eliminated in the 2012 standard.
Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects, 2016
Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, 1984
Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China

PUBLICATIONS ABOUT AIR POLLUTION IN MACAU

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

September 27, 2018

Extreme Natural Events

NATURAL HAPPENINGS

TSUNAMIS (海啸)

Tsunamis are distinct from ordinary wind-driven ocean waves and are giant waves caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions under the sea or even by landslides in the coastal zones or by meteorites that fall dow in the oceans. Out in the depths of the ocean, tsunami waves do not dramatically increase in height. However as the waves travel inland, they build up to higher and higher heights as the depth of the ocean decreases. The speed of tsunami waves depends on ocean depth rather than the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves may travel as fast as jet planes over deep waters, only slowing down when reaching shallow waters. While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because tides have little to do with these giant waves (adapted from NOAA).

How does tsunami energy travel across the ocean and how far can tsunamis waves reach? by ITIC

Tsunamis by National Geographic

Tsunamis by NOAA

Estimated Tsunami Travel Times to Coastal Locations by NOAA

Tsunami Travel Time Maps: Tsunami Sources by NOAA

January 28, 2018

Introductory Statistics Using R / R語言統計學入門課程 course

ISE, USJ, Macao: Feb, 26星期一to Mar, 13星期二 : 18:30 – 21:30H.

The course introduces basic statistical analysis with the open source software R, a programming language for statistical computing with graphical capabilities.

The benefits of R software:

  • R is free. R is open-source and runs on UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh.
  • R has an excellent built-in help system.
  • R has excellent graphing capabilities.
  • Students can easily migrate to the commercially supported S-Plus program if commercial software is desired.
  • R’s language has a powerful, easy to learn syntax with many built-in statistical functions.
  • The language is easy to extend with user-written functions.
  • R is a computer programming language. For programmers, it will feel more familiar than others and for new computer users, the next leap to programming will not be so large.

 

November 6, 2017

New BSc of ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, 環境科學學士學位課程

This NEW degree will prepare you for a successful career in environment-related areas. As a professional, you will have the opportunity to contribute with solutions for the environmental challenges that the world is facing.

The degree aims to respond to the worldwide growing demand for well-trained professionals in Environmental Sciences as consequence of increasing pressure on natural resources and environmental degradation. This demand is particularly evident in China, including the Pearl River Delta region. The course provides a broad formation in scientific areas related with environmental science and promotes interaction with other areas. For this, the programme includes foundation modules on different fields of science (biology, earth sciences, chemistry, physics, mathematics), environment-related modules (pollution, energy, waste management, environmental politics, environmental impact assessment) and modules that promote cross talk with other disciplines such as ethics, management, or architecture. The programme has a high proportion of hands-on learning hours in order to provide adequate technical training in tools, methods and techniques useful in environmental science. The degree has a total of 148 credits, distributed throughout 8 semesters of study. Students exiting this programme will have the opportunity to pursue their studies in this area at USJ in the already running Master of Environmental Sciences and Management.

CONTACT US: University of Saint Joseph, Tel +853 8796 4455 | Fax +853 2872 5517 Rua de Londres, 16,Macau SAR, CHINA; Email: admissions@usj.edu.mo

TYPICAL CAREER OPTIONS

  • • in sustainability departments of private companies, hotels and governmental agencies of any nature;
  • • in companies providing services in waste, energy or water management;
  • • in environmental impact assessment, environmental quality monitoring and environmental remediation teams;
  • • in laboratories to establish and run analytical protocols for the quantification and characterization of pollutants;
  • • in environmental protection governmental agencies and NGOs; • as technicians in liquid and solid waste management stations; • as consultants in environmental consulting companies;
    • as educators in natural and environmental sciences;
  • • in R&D in environmental sciences in private and public companies;

More info in the USJ web page

See also: Master in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND MANAGEMENT – 環境科學與管理碩士學位課位

     More Information here: http://www.ise.usj.edu.mo/master/

     更多資訊請至以下網頁查詢:http://www.ise.usj.edu.mo/master/

BES-2Institute of Science and Environment

March 17, 2017

MESOZOIC MAGMATISM OF MACAO AND HONG KONG

Mesozoic magmatism of Macao and Hong Kong in the context of SE China geodynamics
澳門與香港的中生代岩漿作用 (含前往路環的野外行程)

Date: 22nd April 2017 (Saturday) – Meeting and workshop + Field trip

Venue: Speakers Hall and Science lab of the Institute for Science and Environment, Rua de Londres16, Macau SAR | 澳門外港新填海區倫敦街16號(環宇豪庭), Macau

Organized by the Institute for Science and Environment – University of Saint Joseph (澳門聖若瑟大學 – 科學及環境研究所) and The Geological Society of Hong Kong (香港地質學會)

Organising Committee
Ágata Alveirinho Dias (Chair, ISE)
Paul Cheung (Co-Chair, GSHK)
Varon Lou (ISE):varon.lou@usj.edu.mo
Peggy Lam (GSHK):gshkpb@gmail.com
Pedro Quelhas (ISE)

Description:
During Mesozoic ages, SE China region, where Macao and Hong Kong are located, was affected by plutonic and volcanic events generated during the Indosinian (Triassic) and Yanshanian (Jurasic-Cretaceous) orogenies, overprinting all previous events in the South China Fold Belt.

This event aims to contribute towards a deeper understanding of the geology of Macao and Hong Kong. It will be discussed the genesis and evolution of the Mesozoic magmatic rocks observed in this area and how their geodynamic evolution relates to each other.

Local and international researchers, with a large experience in the study of magmatic rocks and in the geology of this region, will give key talks to share their knowledge on the geological features of Macao and Hong Kong within the broader context of SE China. During this session, there will be a workshop where you can have the opportunity to observe rock samples and correspondent microscopy thin sections from this region. The event will culminate with a field trip to Coloane (Macao).

Fees: MOP 190 / HKD 185 (Includes transportation for the field trip, lunch and coffee breaks)

Application Deadline: 2oth April 2017, 6pm

E-mail contacts: Varon Lou (ISE, Macau): varon.lou@usj.edu.mo | Leung Wai Kin (GSHK, HK): gshkpb@gmail.com

Target participants: Earth science researchers, students, high school teachers, civil engineers and others interested in learning more about earth sciences and, in particular, to understand the geological history of Macau, Hong Kong and surrounding areas.

Language: English

NOTE: please plan to arrive at the workshop room 10 to 15 minutes before the workshop start time

PROGRAM

Morning Program:

9:30H

Opening session (ISE, USJ + GSHK): Ágata Dias and Paul Cheung          USJ Speakers Hall

10:00H

Talks

12:00H

Observation/exhibition of rocks from Macau and Hong Kong

13:00H

Meeting lunch

Afternoon Program:

14:20H

Briefing for the field trip (Speakers hall)

14:45H-18:00H

Field trip, lead by Pedro Quelhas and Ágata Dias

Meeting point: In front of USJ (NAPE1 – Rua de Londres 16, Block B)

 18:30H  Arrival to USJ

Certificate of Attendance will be provided at the end of the event.

SPEAKERS

9:30H – Opening talk (by Ágata Alveirinho Dias and Paul Cheung)

Photo_Agata

Ágata Alveirinho has a PhD in Geology and is Associate Professor at the Institute of Science and Environment USJ, in Macau. She is also a collaborating researcher at Instituto Dom Luis (Associate Lab) of the University of Lisbon, in Portugal. Since her graduation, followed by a MSc, a PhD and two postdoctorates, she has been working in Geology, publishing papers related with cartography, petrology, geochemistry and metallogeny. Along her research activities, she has been collaborating with different universities and research institutions around the world, such as IFREMER, Brest, France; ETH, Zurich, Switzerland; NOC, Southampton, UK; University of Bergen, Norway; FCUL, Lisbon, Portugal and GIGCAS, Guangzhou, China. She has been studying deep-sea hydrothermal processes and, more recently, she has been also developing work on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks from Macau and SE China. She is currently the coordinator of a project funded by the Macao Science and Technology Development Fund, FDCT, to study the geological history of Macao and to update the geological map of this region.

Paul CHEUNG

Paul CHEUNG Chi Tak is the Chairman of the Professional Branch, Geological Society of Hong Kong and Vice President of the Geological Society of Hong Kong (GSHK). He serves as a Scrutineer for Chartered Geologist of the Geological Society of London and he was part-time lecturer in Engineering Geology with the Civil Engineering Department of Chu Hai College and in Soil Mechanics with the Civil Engineering Department of Hong Kong Polytechnic (High Certificate Course). In his early career, he worked for a British Consultants firm in Hong Kong as a graduate geologist/geotechnical engineer. Then worked as a mapping geologist with Mass Transit Railway for the site formation works on Kornhill Development. He then joined the then Geotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong Government in 1985 until retirement in 2015. Paul Cheung graduated with BSc in Geology with the National Taiwan University and MSc in geochemistry of gabbroic rocks with the University of Windsor, Canada. He also got a postgraduate Certificate in Business Administration with the Hong Kong City University. He carried out research on the Quaternary Marine Depositional Environment of Hong Kong with the Geography Department of the Chinese University.

10:00H – Reconstructing the architecture of the late Mesozoic Southeast China continental margin (by Rod Sewell)

Photo_Sewell

Rod Sewell has been a member of the Hong Kong Geological Survey for over 27 years. Following completion of his PhD on an extinct volcano in New Zealand, he worked for the New Zealand Geological Survey studying volcanic geology and tectonics, with excursions to the Antarctic and USA. He has coauthored several books, papers, and maps on the geology of Hong Kong, New Zealand and Antarctica. Rod is Chief Training Geologist in the GEO/CEDD and is an Honorary Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Hong Kong. He currently heads the Hong Kong Geological Survey, GEO/CEDD.

About the talk

A variety of tectonic models have been proposed for the origin of Jurassic (199-145 Ma) magmatism in SE China. These include both a mature continental arc setting and a within-plate setting. Among these models, subduction of the Palaeo-pacific plate along a convergent margin has the most support. However, not much is known about the structure of the convergent margin complex. Here, we use precisely-dated, well-studied, tectonostratigraphic terranes in Hong Kong, together with geochemistry and geochronology of granitic rocks, to help reconstruct the architecture of the Southeast China convergent margin in the late Middle Jurassic.

10:30H – Evolution of the late Mesozoic magmatic systems in Hong Kong: New perspectives from zircon geochronology and trace element analyses (by Denise Tang)

Photo_Denise_Tang

Denise graduated from the Department of Earth Sciences, HKU and joined the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) as a graduate trainee in 1999. Since then, she has dedicated herself to the geology profession, and been working at the GEO for over 15 years. Denise co-authored the popular geology book “Hong Kong Geology – A 400-million year journey”, which has been one of the GEO’s best seller publications since its publication in 2009. Denise obtained her MPhil degree from the Department of Earth Sciences HKU in 2007, and has recently completed her PhD study at the Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

About the talk

Spatial and temporal correlation of four late Mesozoic volcanic centres and their sub-volcanic plutons are well-constrained in Hong Kong. Of the four volcanic episodes, the youngest caldera-forming eruptions (of c. 140 million years ago) from the High Island Caldera have been interpreted to be of super-eruption scale. Multiple techniques including field studies, zircon SIMS geochronology and trace element analyses have been employed to gain new insights into the evolution of these ancient volcanic systems. The results show that in individual large volcanic systems, source composition and temperature may change over millions of years, and thereby generate two distinctly different groups of volcanic and granitic products. In this talk, some latest findings of Hong Kong’s magmatic history and their implications to our understanding of Yanshanian orogeny will be presented.

11:00H – Mesozoic magmatism in Macao: What is known so far and future developments (by Pedro Quelhas)

Pedro Quelhas

Pedro Quelhas graduated in geology from the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (FCUL) and is currently a PhD student in the Institute of Science and Environment from USJ, where he is developing his research work on the petrology and geochemistry of Igneous Rocks from Macao: Implications for the Crustal Evolution of Southern China, funded by FDCT in Macau. His main interests are focused on igneous petrology, geochemistry and mineralogy. Before being enrolled in the PhD program he also did small research works on petrographic and geochemical features of the Lisbon Volcanic Complex and the dykes from Sines Massif, in Portugal. He was also lecturer at the Geology Department of FCUL.

About the talk

Although small in area (~30 Km2), our data shows that Macao territory has a wide range of granitic facies intruded by subordinate intermediate to acid dykes. Textural, mineralogical and geochemical variability of these rocks suggests different degrees of magmatic evolution in which fractional crystallization played a major role. Previous ages determined for Macao granites (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and their petrographic and geochemical features are similar to many granites occurring in neighboring areas, pointing to a genetic association with the Late Mesozoic magmatism related with the Yanshanian Orogeny. However, it is still not clear with the available data if these rocks were generated in the same magmatic event and/or derived from the same source. Isotopic data are now being acquired and precise dating of the different magmatic units will be undertaken soon, which will provide more answers for the local and regional magmatic history.

11:30H – Hydrothermal events in Hong Kong: constraints on timing and depth of occurrence (by Chan Lung)

Prof Chan Lung Sang is currently Principal of HKU SPACE Community College and HKU SPACE-Po Leung Kuk Stanley Ho Community College, as well as professor in Department of Earth Sciences at HKU. He received his bachelor degree from CUHK and his Masters and PhD in geology and geophysics from University of California-Berkeley. He taught geology at the University of Wisconsin for 10 years before he joined The University of Hong Kong in 1994. His research interests include the tectonics and geology of South China and applied geophysics. He has been actively promoting science education in Hong Kong. Currently he is a member of the Board of Directors of the HK Academy for Gifted Education and scientific advisor of HK Observatory. He chaired the Geological Society for the period 2001-2005 and was invited to be a guest host in several television documentaries on earth science subjects. In 2010, he was bestowed the first University Distinguished Teaching Award by The University of Hong Kong and the Best Original Research Award by HK Medical Journal in 2013.

About the talk

The Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism in Hong Kong region was followed by multiple hydrothermal episodes during the Late Cretaceous through Cenozoic. The hydrothermal events resulted in deuteric mineralisation and silicification of sedimentary layers. A few hydrothermal episodes are found to postdate fold and thrust events as well as the Eocene Ping Chau formation. Authigenic aegirine and the cherty siltstone layer found in the lower member of Ping Chau formation are attributable to hydrothermal events with temperatures estimated at about 300oC. Stromatolitic structures are found to have been preserved in the silicified siltstone. In Double Island, folded sediments of the Pat Sin Leng formation were silicified within a, speculatively, breccia pipe. An examination of the hydraulic fractures in some quartz dikes on Lantau Island has enabled us to estimate the depth at which the fracturing occurred, based on thermodynamic consideration of the phase relation between water and gas as well as the geostatic gradient of the crust. The talk presents an overview of interesting hydrothermal features in Hong Kong and a discussion of their tectonic significance.

POSTER 21Mar2017

ISE Facebook page (Institute of Science and Environment/科學及環境研究所): HERE

Organisers

logo GSHK

Sponsor

June 1, 2016

Air quality information

Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal (WHO).

NEW PAGE: HERE

Air pollutants concentration in Macao: HERE (via SMG)

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